Sentencing Guidelines & Principles
Calculation of white collar sentences Losses and Impact: The financial damage caused by an offender is often a major factor in the determination of the sentence. The amount of damage suffered by the victims is calculated in the courts, and can have a significant impact on the severity of punishment. Higher losses are usually accompanied by longer sentences.
Asset Forfeiture and Restitution: Courts often order restitution to compensate victims’ financial losses. Asset forfeiture can also be used to confiscate ill-gotten gain, so that criminals don’t benefit from their illegal activities.
Role of the Offense: The sentencing for white-collar crimes takes into consideration the level of involvement the defendant has in the crime. Leaders or those who orchestrated complicated schemes could face harsher punishment than those with peripheral involvement.
Criminal Record: Although white-collar crime is often committed by people with no criminal history, the defendant’s past is still taken into consideration when sentencing. A criminal record can reduce a sentence while a clean record could lead to a harsher punishment.
Recent Trends in White Collar Sentencing
Greater Focus on Individual Accountability In recent years, there has been a shift towards holding individuals more accountable, particularly high-ranking executives of corporations, for white-collar crime. This trend is meant to address concerns regarding corporate culture and ethical standards by punishing those who are at the top of an organization’s hierarchy.
Non-Custodial Penalties: Courts may use non-custodial penalties, such as fines or probation, when there is a low likelihood of the offender reoffending. This is in line with the goal of rehabilitation rather than punitive measures.
Corporate Settlements and Deferred Prosecution: Authorities can choose to pursue corporate settlements or deferred prosecution agreements with corporations that have committed white-collar crimes. These agreements often include fines and changes to corporate governance. They can also provide ongoing monitoring.
The ongoing debate:
Fairness and Proportionality: Critics claim that sentences for white-collar crimes are often disproportionate to the damage caused, particularly when compared with sentences for traditional violent crimes. The debate centers around whether or not these sentences reflect the seriousness of the crime.
Effectiveness in Deterrence Some people question the effectiveness of deterrence for white-collar crimes, suggesting that fear of prison may not be an effective deterrent as it is for offenses with financial motivation.